Number Bulls & Cows
This traditional pencil and paper game probably dates back to the 1900s.
Bulls and Cows is a popular game for programming on a computer. The earliest recorded program, called MOO, was written by Dr. Frank King in 1968 at the Cambridge University Computing Department.
In 1970 a version of the game was designed using coloured pegs, and marketed by Invicta Plastics as "Mastermind".